benefits and losses of mutation
. Utilization of Distance oil (Jatropha curcas L) as a bio-diesel is an ideal alternative to reduce the pressure of fuel demand and saving the use of oil reserves. Jatropha oil in addition to a source of renewable oil (reneweble fuels) also includes non-edible oil so it does not compete with the needs of human consumption such as palm oil, corn oil, etc.. In agronomic crops Jatropha can adapt to the land and agro-climate in Indonesia, even in dry conditions and on marginal land / critical. However, there are the problems faced, namely the lack of improved varieties and cultivation techniques are adequate.
Techniques of Artificial Mutations is an attempt to change the composition or the amount of genetic material / DNA by using a radioactive beam radiation (X rays, alpha, beta and gamma) or by chemical compounds (colchicine). Mutations with gamma-ray techniques are usually intended to produce the seeds of rice and pulses, so that short-lived (rapid harvest), the results are numerous and resistant to pests aphis. In addition, there are other artificial mutation techniques, ie, immersion techniques seeds and agricultural crops in the compound of colchicine, this compound causes the plant has a large fruit and not seed in fruits such as watermelon, papaya, oranges, and seedless grapes, as in The following 22 images. But unfortunately these plants can not produce new plants as offspring, because the resulting fruits do not have the reproductive organs of seed. Then how do if we want the fruits without seeds again? Yeah right, we must start again from soaking the seeds (seed) of a fruit that has seeds, with a compound colchicine. Only then planted and awaited the results of his men who would not have seeds.
- Mutations losses
Tumor suppressor gene mutations disrupt normal cell regulation because mutation is able to eliminate the restriction point that should be passed by each cell at the time of entry into the cell cycle. Restriction point occurs between phases G1 and S phase of cell cycle, lasting about two to three hours before the DNA synthesized in S phase Pathways are activated in response to DNA damage is a signal for inactivation restriction point, thus stopping the cell cycle at G1 phase. In the event of DNA damage, cell cycle stopped at G1 phase and in G2 phase. Stops in the G1 phase serves to prevent the damaged DNA is replicated and stops in G2 allows cells to avoid segregation of damaged chromosomes.
From the above discussion we can conclude that the mutation is fundamental to the theory of evolution, but mutations can only eliminate traits. Mutations can not produce new features. In contrast, biologists have documented a lot of behavior generated by point mutations (changes at certain positions in an organism's DNA) - for example, bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Mutations that arise in family homeobox (Hox) genes from regulators in animals can also have complex effects. Hox genes direct where legs, wings, antennae and body segments should grow. In fruit flies, for example, called antennapedia mutation causes the foot to grow in places where antennae should grow. These abnormal limbs are not functional, but its existence suggests that genetic mistakes can produce complex structures, which can then be tested for by natural selection if it can be useful or not. Furthermore, molecular biology has discovered mechanisms for genetic changes that occur more than just mutaasi point, and it expands the way in which new properties can emerge. Functional modules within genes can be clipped in the right way. Entire genes can inadvertently duplicated in an organism's DNA, and duplication is free to mutate into a Gen2 new fitur2 complicated. Comparison of DNA from different organisms suggests that this is how your family of globin from blood proteins evolved over millions of years.