HISTORY OF WINDOWS

Windows 1.0

The first version of Microsoft Windows, called Windows 1.0, released on November 20, 1985. This version has many flaws in some functionality, making it less popular in the market. At first Windows version 1.0 is going to called Interface Manager, but Rowland Hanson, head of marketing at Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft officials assured that the name "Windows" will be more "lure" consumers. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system, but only extends the capabilities of MS-DOS with additional graphical interface. In addition, Windows 1.0 also has the same problems and weaknesses that are owned by MS-DOS.
Furthermore, Apple sue Microsoft to make Microsoft is limiting his ability. For example, the windows in the Windows 1.0 only be displayed on the screen in "tiled" only, so the window can not overwrite each other with each other. In addition, there is no such place used to store the file before it is deleted (Recycle Bin), because Apple believes that they have a right to the paradigm. Microsoft would then throw away the limitations of Windows by signing a licensing agreement with Apple.

Windows 2.x

Windows version 2 appeared later on December 9, 1987, and became slightly more popular than its predecessor. Gained in popularity largely because of its proximity to graphical applications made by Microsoft, Microsoft Excel for Windows and Microsoft Word for Windows. Windows applications can be run from MS-DOS, to then enter Windows to perform its operations, and will come out by itself when the application is closed.

Microsoft Windows eventually obtain a significant improvement when Aldus PageMaker appeared in versions for Windows, which previously could only run on the Macintosh. Some computer experts noted historians as the emergence of an application that significantly behavior in addition to Microsoft's early success as Microsoft Windows.

Windows version 2.0x using real-mode memory model, which is only capable of accessing up to 1 megabyte of memory. In such a configuration, Windows can run other applications multitasking, like DESQview, which runs in protected mode offered by the Intel 80286.

Windows 2.1x

Furthermore, two new versions released, the Windows/286 2.1 and Windows/386 2.1. As with previous Windows versions, Windows/286 using real-mode memory model, but it is the first version that supports the High Memory Area (HMA). Windows/386 2.1 even has a kernel running in protected mode with emulation Expanded Memory Specification (EMS) standard Lotus-Intel-Microsoft (LIM), the predecessor specification Extended Memory Specification (XMS), which then in turn change the topology of computing on the IBM PC. All Windows and DOS-based applications when it is running in real mode, which runs on top of the protected mode kernel using virtual 8086 mode, which is a new feature which is owned by the Intel 80386.

2:03 Version 3.0 and later versions of Apple's demands to get version 2.1 because it has the appearance of windows in cascade mode (overlap), in addition to some of the features Apple's Macintosh operating system that is "emulated" by Windows, the main problem is the display / look and feel. Judge William Schwarzer finally canceled all 189 charges, unless the nine charges filed by Apple against Microsoft on January 5, 1989.


Windows 3.0
Microsoft Windows eventually achieved a significant success when stepping version 3.0, released in 1990. In addition to offering increased capabilities to Windows applications, Windows 3.0 is also able to allow users to run multiple MS-DOS applications simultaneously (multitasking), because it has been introduced in this version of virtual memory. This version is precisely what makes the IBM PC and compatibles serious challenger to the Apple Macintosh. This is due to the improved performance graphics processing at that time (with the graphics card Video Graphics Array (VGA)), as well as protected mode / 386 Enhanced mode that allows Windows applications to use more memory with an easier way than what offered by MS-DOS.

Windows 3.0 can run in three modes, namely real mode, standard mode, and 386 Enhanced mode, and is compatible with the Intel family of processors from Intel 8086/8088, 80286, to 80386. Windows 3.0 will try to detect which mode to use, although users can force Windows to work in a particular mode by using certain switches when running

* Win / r: force Windows to run in real mode
* Win / s: forcing Windows to run in standard mode
* Win / 3: forcing Windows to run in 386 Enhanced mode.

Version 3.0 is also the first version of Windows that runs in protected mode, although the 386 enhanced mode kernel is an enhanced version of the kernel of the protected mode kernel within Windows/386.

Because of backward compatibility feature, Windows 3.0 applications must be compiled using 16-bit environment, so it did not use the capabilities of Intel 80386 microprocessor, which is actually a 32-bit processors.

Windows 3.0 is also present in the version of "multimedia", which is called by Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions 1.0, which was released several months later. This version is bundled with the existence of "multimedia upgrade kit", which consists of a CD-ROM drive and a sound card, like Creative Labs Sound Blaster Pro. This version is the pioneer of all the multimedia features included in later versions of Windows, like Windows 3.1 and Windows for Workgroups, and become part of Microsoft's Multimedia PC specification.

The features mentioned above and the support of the application software market is growing makes Windows 3.0 is very successful in the market. Recorded, within two years prior to the release version of Windows 3.1, Windows 3.0 sold over 10 million copies. Finally, Windows 3.0 was a major source of income of Microsoft, and Microsoft did make some revisions to the plan initially.


Temporarily switch to OS / 2

During the mid to late 1980s, Microsoft and IBM worked together to develop a successor to the DOS operating system, called the IBM OS / 2. OS / 2 can use all the capabilities offered by Intel 80286 microprocessor and capable of accessing up to 16 Megabytes of memory. OS / 2 1.0 was released in 1987, which has the swapping and multitasking features, in addition to permit application of the MS-DOS to run on it.

OS / 2 version 1.0 is just an operating system based on text mode / command line only. OS / 2 version 1.1, released in 1988 offers a graphical interface, called the Presentation Manager (PM). Presentation Manager uses the same coordinate system with Cartesian coordinates, in contrast with the Windows operating system and some other GUI systems. The use of the coordinate system causes the point x, y 0.0 on OS / 2 is placed on the lower left corner of the screen, while on Windows, placement on the top left corner. OS / 2 version 1.2, released in 1989, introduces a new file system, called the High Performance File System (HPFS), which is intended to replace the file system File Allocation Table (FAT).

In the early 1990s, the relationship between Microsoft and IBM were stretched due to the appearance of a conflict. This is because they work together in developing a personal computer operating systems respectively (IBM with OS / 2 and Microsoft with its Windows), both have access to the code of each operating system. Microsoft requires the further development of the Windows operating system made, while IBM has a desire that all his future work should be made based on the operating system OS / 2. In an attempt to end this conflict, IBM and Microsoft finally agreed that IBM would develop the IBM OS / 2 version 2.0, to replace OS / 2 version 1.3 and Windows 3.0, while Microsoft had to develop a new operating system, OS / 2 version 3.0, which will then replace the OS / 2 version 2.0.

This Agreement also does not last long, so the relationship IBM and Microsoft were discontinued. IBM eventually continue development of OS / 2, while Microsoft is changing the name of the operating system OS / 2 version 3.0 (not yet released) to Windows NT. Both still have the right to use the technology OS / 2 and Windows that have been formed until the termination agreement: but, Windows NT is really written as a new operating system and most of the free code from the code IBM OS / 2.

After version 1.3 was released for to justify some of the problems in the OS / 2 version 1.x, IBM has finally released OS / 2 version 2.0 in 1992. Version 2.0 offers significant improvements, which is an object-oriented GUI, called the Workplace Shell (WPS), which includes a desktop and is considered by many people is the best feature in the OS / 2. Microsoft was finally "plagiarized" some elements of the Workplace Shell on Windows 95 operating system was released three years later. Version 2.0 also offers an API that fully supports 32-bit instructions on Intel's 80386, thus offering a great multitasking features and capable of addressing up to 4 gigabytes of memory. Even so, many things in the internal system still uses 16-bit code, which requires a device driver should also be written using 16-bit code as well, in addition to several other internal things. This is one reason why OS / 2's lack of hardware drivers. Version 2.0 is also capable of running DOS and Windows 3.0 applications, because IBM is also still have the right to use DOS and Windows code after the "divorce" the relationship between them.

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